New Directions

Looking back over my posts, I can see that my original attempt at a framework for examining teachers’ use of ICT in the classroom is no longer useful to me. Firstly, I am finding it almost impossible to separate the various ‘factors’ that lead to successful integration. Reliable, up-to-date equipment won’t be purchased without support from the school leadership, and a supportive school culture will often result from good equipment and a supportive leadership. I have discovered that knowing how to use technology is, by itself, not enough to lead to a change in teaching practice (Hammond et al., 2009).

The TPCK model (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) places good teaching at the intersection of technological, pedagogical and content knowledge, acknowledging the complex relationship between all these factors. This model helps us reflect on our teaching, probably as teachers who are already sold on the notion that teaching with ICT is not only better, but necessary in modern education. However, TPCK does not help me understand why teachers aren’t sold on the idea in the first place. Ertmer and Ottenbreit-Leftwich (2010, p. 255) set out a model that explains teacher change as a result of the intersection of knowledge, confidence, beliefs and culture, which I refer to as KCBC

As a pre-service teacher I have found the idea of combining the ideas of TPCK and KCBC very helpful. Although I believe that using ICT in education is essential, and have a growing knowledge of technology, my confidence that I am able to use it in a educationally meaningful manner is not fully developed. I need then to use  TPCK to unpack my understanding of the relationships between technology, pedagogy and content, to improve my understanding of how to integrate technology in the classroom. More knowledgeable, I hope to be more confident and more likely to make the decision to be an agent of technological change in the classroom.

Ertmer, P. & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2010). Teacher Technology Change: How Knowledge, Confidence, Beliefs, and Culture Intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 42(3), 255-284. Retrieved from

Hammond, M., Crosson, S., Fragkouli, E., Ingram, J., Johnston-Wilder, P., Johnston-Wilder, S., Kingston, Y., Pope, M. & Wray, D. (2009). Why do some student teachers make very good use of ICT? An exploratory case study, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 18(1), 59 — 73.
DOI: 10.1080/14759390802704097. Retreived from

Mishra, P. & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teacher College Record. 108(6), 1017-1054.

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